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    Industry 4.0

    Industry 4.0 is the term given after the fourth industrial revolution. However, it means the system of intelligent networking and smart computer system. Intelligent networking of devices and system process work with the aid of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Similarly, ICT allows information sharing in the industry so that transparency sustains throughout the industry.

    Industry 4.0 is the digitalization of traditional industrial processes. However, after the fourth industrial revolution, many big companies are focusing their work functions in the digital process. Similarly, small scale companies are also keen on adopting Industry 4.0 for internal administration.

    Industry 4.0 is the latest trend that pushes industrial technology even further. Similarly, its trend initiates smart automation, which in Smart Home Technology. Most importantly, processes such as Cyber-Physical-System, IoT, IIoT, and AI evolve with the advancement of Industry 4.0.

    The technology incorporates with Cloud Computing and Cognitive Computing to enhance the computing system and storage. similarly, these services also offer many other features to promote green computing.

    Concepts of Industry 4.0

    Various modules integrate with Industry 4.0 for promoting Green Computing. However, not all of them follow the protocols. This integration evolves certain concepts for the fourth industrial revolution:

    Smart Factories (Smart manufacturing)

    A smart factory is a highly digitalized production facility that depends upon smart manufacturing. The factory posses’ huge number of connected devices, monitored by information and communication technology (ICT).

    The smart factory concept is one of the important outcomes and concepts of Industry 4.0. The concept empowers a computer-integrated manufacturing system with high adaptability allowing rapid design.

    The smart factory has interoperable, flexible systems, multi-scale dynamic modeling, strong cybersecurity, and network sensors. However, other major functions are yet to follow in the future.

    Industrial Internet of things (IIoT)

    IIoT is one of the most applied technology in industries after the fourth industrial revolution. With the interconnected sensors and networked devices, IIoT follows the principle of IoT for mass production. This technology reduces the cost and defects in products developed by the industries.

    IIoT also allows data collection and processing to generate useful information. Data analysis and transfer improve the overall performance of the industry.

    Design Principles

    There are four major design principles of Industry 4.0:

    Interconnection: This principle focuses on the connection between the devices and sensors. The devices communicate with one another via the internet of things allowing high interoperability.

    Transparency:  Information Transparency is another major design principle. Connected devices gather huge amounts of data. Industry uses it for its administration, which is transparent to the user.  

    Technical Assistance: With the help of the Cyber-Physical Systems less human effort is enough to carry out the physical task. Similarly, the task unpleasant to the human body such as unsafe works in mines is safe in the hands of Cyber-Physical-System.

    Decentralized decisions: In different scenarios, Cyber-Physical-System can make decisions itself. Similarly, the user does not need to worry about critical decisions. However, in exceptions higher-level management makes decisions.

    Components of Industry 4.0

    The structure of this industrial technology is complex and includes all the IoT devices. However, with modern digital trends, here are some of the digital technologies serving as a component of Industry 4.0.

    Advantages of Industry 4.0

    • Increased production in large scale industries. Similarly, small scale industries can also improve their production.
    • Reduced defects in products.
    • Fully automated system (Requires less user effort physically). However, in exception user involvement is necessary.
    • Smart manufacturing.
    • Increases Dark Factories, which lowers human risk in a harsh working environment.
    • Easy Storage with the help of a Cloud Platform.
    • Easy mobilization of goods and services. However, some services require user involvement.
    • Integrated Information System makes decision making simple and effective.

    Challenges

    With every emerging technology, many questions arise. Likewise, every technology faces certain challenges before implementation. So, let’s brief some challenges:

    Economic perspective

    • The initial implementation cost is extremely high.
    • Difficulty in business model adaption.
    • Investment and benefits are not specific.

    Social perspective

    • The first major challenge is Privacy Concerns.
    • Unemployment increases because of the automated system.

    Political perspective

    • No proper certification and standards forums.
    • Lack of Regulation from the government.
    • Internal challenges from the organization.

    Security issues

    • Qualified employees lack for a new system.
    • Difficult to maintain stable M2M communication.

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